The clinical examination that allows to obtain data relating to the morphology and quality of the bone with good precision is computerized axial tomography. Two substantially different situations may arise depending on whether the structural analysis is aimed at the study of a generic case or at the study of a specific patient. In the first case, the geometric model must be representative of a generic population and it may therefore be advisable to use data widely shared by the entire scientific community, such as those found on the ‘Visible Human Project’ website [21]. In the second case, it will be necessary instead to perform a computerized tomography of the patient under examination.
The output files from computerized axial tomography can be analyzed by means of special image analysis softwares that allow you to reconstruct, section by section, the contours of the volumes of interest (cortical bone, trabecular bone, teeth, etc.). These contours are subsequently imported by a 3D CAD software that allows surfaces and volumes to be obtained by interpolation.