Functional implantology consists of an implant technique that is in agreement with the modern trend of surgery that becomes less invasive every day. This means less suffering and more immediate functional benefits for the patient.
It allows to adapt the implant structure to the anatomical characteristics of the patient who, except in rare cases, does not therefore require preparatory surgery that sometimes uses bone transposition techniques from other anatomical districts.
The atraumaticity that distinguishes functional implantology makes it prefer as a technique of first use, leaving as the second choice – and only in case of failure – the most invasive techniques. After all, failure in the short and long term, given the technical characteristics of the type of implants, involves small lesions to the bone apparatus that undergoes spontaneous repair, so it can be repeated in the short term.
The solidarity of the implants together leads to a different way of distributing the forces acting on the structure which therefore loses the individuality of each individual implant and instead participates with a mutual work in the mechanical support of the prosthesis.
The following figures show a comparison between a complex electrowelded structure and a traditional plant.
The equipment allows to carry out the welding directly in the oral cavity of the patient.
The welding process is of an electric type without the addition of material in an inert gas atmosphere in accordance with the principles set forth by Lorenzon. The two elements to be welded are positioned between the two electrodes of the clamp. The energy contained in a battery of capacitors, previously charged, is transferred to the electrodes of the clamp, the current flowing through the points of contact between the two parts to be welded heats the material up to the melting point creating the welded joint.
During the cycle the melting point is protected by the Argon gas supply. This prevents the fusion zone, due to the effect of the temperature, from reacting with the oxygen contained in the air, producing oxidation and therefore decay of the mechanical characteristics of the material used.
The heat produced does not reach dangerous levels as it is dissipated through the electrodes exploiting the greater thermal conductivity of the Copper.
During the welding phase the clamp is automatically disconnected from the mains.
The welder has a microcontroller inside which manages the user interface by means of the keys, the encoder and the display; the machine is reset according to the gauges of the elements to be joined in order to carry out the process with adequate modalities and temporality.
The welding cycle is divided into 3 different phases, defined as:
1. Phase of pregas: emission of argon able to ensure that the atmosphere at the welding point is free from oxygen before starting the welding phase.
2. Sintering phase followed by deep syncrystallization: percentage of energy delivered to the electrodes; obtained with the passage of current capable of carrying out the molecular excitation with variation of the atomic bonds of Ti.
3. Post-gas phase: it is necessary that the atmosphere is free from oxygen until the temperature of the joint has reached such a level of molecular stability as to avoid any possible reaction with the oxygen contained in the air.
Before each welding cycle the microcontroller checks that there are the correct conditions of the electrical circuit and the welding point.
This means that the electrical resistance of the overall circuit must be less than a predetermined value. In addition, an acoustic alarm alerts the operator to the beginning and end of the welding cycle.
The instrument is contained in a special container that allows it to be transported.