SYNCRYSTALLIZATION

Prof Luigi Mondani was the first to introduce the Intra-oral Welding Methodology. The input for research came out from the operator need to bind with an indissoluble bond the pins used while realizing his favourate technique.

So for the functional Implantology, it was necessary an instrument able to weld Titanium bars within the patients oral cavity without causing him lesions at all.

Thanks to Mondani’s instruments, it was possible to create a second generation welding machine that, through a very high voltage current pulse for a very-short time, allowed the inter-digitations of the titanium prisms, resulting so welded by the so-called syncrystallization process.

The syncrystallization machine introduces the Argon use as antioxidized protection element in the joint creation.

Latest studies on the joint interface section gave the author new concepts about the connection between bar and implant. The 3rd generation of instruments to solder brought to a new structural morphology of the boundary region.

In it, in fact, thanks to the use of operational methods resulting from the union of mechanical factors (pressure), current passage with an opportunely modified load curve and pulses, with an opportunely regulated time sequence, it’s possible to come to a circumferential sintering process associated to the deep syncrystallization (photo 1).

Thanks to this process, another progress of the joint characteristics, a new generation machine was created.

Beginning from metallurgy concepts on Titanium, notions about deep syncrystallization associated to the circumferential sintering will be described.

implantologia-elettrosaldata-titanio-protesi-dentale-estetica-fissazione-dentiere
Fig. 1

Titanium

implantologia-elettrosaldata-titanio-protesi-dentale-estetica-fissazione-dentiere
Fig. 2

Part. 1: INTRODUCTION

Titanium is included in the group 4(a) of the periodical table, before Zirconium and Hafnium. It’s a silver/white metal, with similar characteristics to the ones of silicon and tin.

Klaproth discovered it in 1775 then isolated by Liebig in 1831, obtaining it by the rutile. Thanks to the American armament industry, Titanium got to be used overall in the aviation field.

At the same time, its first use for dental implants, above all orthopedic implantology.

In the 60’s Tramonte was the first to introduce it with the use of the self-threading screw. It’s the 4th most abundant metal on the earth’s crust, with a percentage of 0,6 %.

Although it’s one of the most common elements in nature, its industrial production cost is very high as difficult to be digged out.

Starting from the 50’s, thanks to a valid mining process, two classes of raw materials were developed:

  • Titanium commercially Pure (Ti>99%) known as ASTM CP;
  • Titanium alloys, with a variable Titanium percentage from 80 to 98%, together with to aluminium, tin, vanadium, chromium or other alloy elements.